This term we were studying about polynomial and rational functions. It involved how to divide polynomials, real and complex zeros, graphing polynomials, and rational function. From using the precalculus book as well as Khan Academy as our main resources, I can practice the skills that I have learned in class. I personally think that the topic in Khan, Exponential Growth and Decay, is the hardest among the practices I have, and it took me the most time. However, through working with my friends and asking clarifying questions to the teacher, I can get it further.
This lab is the first time ever that we were allowed to actually eat the experimental product which is the s’more. After learning how to balance the chemistry equation, experimental and theoretical yield, and limiting and excess reactants we simulate this lab to further our understanding in those areas. Limiting reactant is the reactant is all used in the experiment and excess reactant is the reactant is leftover in the experiment. Experimental yield is the actual product that we got in the experiment and in this case is the mass of the s’more and theoretical yields is the product that we should get. After the experiment, my team actually found out that the percent yield is 101% because our experimental yield is bigger than our theoretical yields, the denominator.
American Civil War,
Caused the whole country to struggle
The war between the North and the South,
Through oppositions that had been aroused.
The first reason is the Climate and Slavery,
The main reason caused the huge tragedy
The weather is hot in the South,
Depending on slaves in every house.
The nutritious soil in the region,
Allowed them almost year-round growing seasons
They need workers who’ll work for free
So they brought and support the slavery.
Growing and harvesting of such crops as rice, cotton, and tobacco
Allowing their economy to grow.
Southerners enslaved Black Africans for free labor
To increase their production in agriculture.
As in the North the temperate weather
Has low dependant of cheap farmers
They rely on the growth of an industry
The reason that made them opposed to slavery.
The second cause is lacking of compromise,
The two regions only cared about their own enterprise,
The South wanted to count the slaves as white people
To increase the number of representatives in the Capitol.
At the same time they don’t want the “same blacks included in the number of citizens”
“For which the states had to pay taxes to the central government.”
As in the North there were less slave,
Losing the election
The two regions deeply disagreed on other issues, such as the states’ rights
Also the main reason that led them to fight.
The South became so inflamed with this controversy,
“which 630,000 young Americans died in the bloodiest war of [their] history.”
The South creating their own culture,
Created “a ruling class with economic interests, political ideals” and strong code of honor.
The South become even more violent,
It is one of the reasons that led to the mounting tension.
The main causes of the American Civil War,
Not enough compromises in the federal
Different perspectives on the government
Also the different opinions on slaves dependant.
Those were the reasons behind the tragedy
Causing thousands death and injury
The war lasted about 4 years,
630 thousands Americans had disappeared.
The victory went to the North, led by President Lincoln,
The hero to millions of slaves and an Americans icon.
Fighting in the bloodiest war in the history,
Ended the dependent on slavery.
In the first term of the Khmer Sight Foundation (KSF) project we trying to create the values and ideas improve the experiences that the patients would receive during the mission and especially during the screening. So we’ve been brainstorming the ideas that we want to do to help the KSF. After generating many ideas in the seminar hour we have a formal meeting with the KSF’s board to make the ideas possible. The outcome of the meeting were three different videos to educate the patients how to protect their eyes, about diabetes and eye disease, and last but not least is the video that teach the new volunteers how to do the screening. We’ve finished one of the video now and soon all. And we hope that every Khmer people will protect their eyes well and most importantly changing the stigma of wearing the sunglasses.
Objective: To observe the relationship between various elements and their emission spectrum.
Flame tests provide a way to qualitatively test for the presence of specific elements by seeing colored flames. The heat of the bunsen burner excites the electrons in the atom, and this energy is released as the electrons “fall back” to their ground states. The color we see is a combination of the visible wavelengths of light emitted by the atoms.
If you have a spectroscope you can also make quantitative observations. A spectroscope can be used to see a pattern of narrow lights called an emission (bright-line) spectrum. The actually wavelengths of the spectrum serve as a quantitative test to determine atoms identities. Each element has a different “pattern” of electrons, so it will show a different combination of colors.
In this lab you will perform flame tests on seven different elements. You will use your observations to identify an unknown solution.
Prelaboratory Questions: (In a section labeled PRELAB- answer the following questions in FULL sentences)
- Why do we see colors in the flame tests?
- We see color in the flame lab because the bunsen burner excites the electrons i the atom, and the energy is released as electrons and showing the quantized energy which we see the color.
- How will we be testing the substances qualitatively?
- We will testing the substance qualitatively by observing the color of different salt compound and check the wavelength of those color.
Safety goggles , wood splints, tongs/tweezers, Bunsen burner, test tubes with various compounds
- Safety goggles must be worn at all times
- Many of these salts are toxic. If you come into contact with any of the compounds make sure to notify teacher and wash the contacted area thoroughly. Wash your hands before leaving the lab!
- Light the Bunsen burner (turn the gas on so you can just hear it, then use the striker)
- Place the wood splint for each compound into the flame using tongs or tweezers- ONE AT A TIME!
- Take note of the color of the flame and return the wood splint to the solution.
- CLEAN UP YOUR STATION! Carefully put the stoppers back on the solutions! Make sure the station looks like it did when you started! Let me know if you need new splints!
- Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory
Data Table: make a section of your lab labeled Data Table and make a data table similar to the one below to record your observations.
Color of Flame (qualitative)
Wavelengths of light (in Å) (quantitative)
|Barium Chloride||Yellow||570 nm – 590 nm|
|Calcium Chloride||Orange-ish-red||Orange: 590 nm – 620 nm
Red: 620 nm – 750 nm
|Copper (II) Chloride||Green (abit Blue)||Green: 495 nm – 570 nm
Blue: 450 nm – 495 nm
|Lithium Chloride||Red-ish-pink||620 nm – 750 nm|
|Potassium Chloride||Orange||590 nm – 620 nm|
|Strontium Chloride||Red||620 nm – 750 nm|
|Red-ish-violet||Red: 620 nm – 750 nm
Violet: 380 nm – 450 nm
Discussion and Analysis: (In a section labeled Discussion and Analysis answer the following questions in complete sentences)
- How do your results from the flame test provide support for quantized energy levels? Explain your answer.
- The results from the flame test provide support for quantized energy by the number of the wavelength that we know from the color of each of the salt compound.
- The unknown compound is one of the other six. Identify it and explain HOW you figured it out using the results of your experiment.
- The unknown compound is one of the other six, and I think it is the Lithium Chloride because they have the same quantized energy and during the experiment the color of both compound is the same.
Conclusion: (answer in a complete paragraph and in complete sentences)
What are two possible sources of error for this lab. How would the errors affect your lab? What would you do differently next time to counteract these errors?
- The two possible sources of error for this lab would be the drop of the previous chloride onto the flame in which will cause in bias result of color of the next compound. Another one is about how we interpret the color where it will lead to different interpretation of the wavelength or quantized energy of each of the compound. So the next time we do this lab we will need to make sure the flame is clean after testing for one compound before testing another compound. And trying to do more replications for each of the compound so that we get the valid result which mean the valid color and quantized energy.
This term we had published our first ever Khmer book which is the Khmer poems. We’ve been working on this project about 2 years now, and finally we can published it happily. At first the students in the class learned different types of Khmer poems and then we started to write our individual poems. In that class, I wrote about 8 poems within the course of 3 weeks about different occasion, including love, places, and the sight in Cambodia. Our book is about 200 pages covered about 6 different topics. On the other hand, we also participate in the Khmer Reading and Writing Festival in Battambang to promote our book. At there we got to know some of the well known writers in Cambodia and share our Khmer poem book to them. Currently, we are working to find fund and sponsorship in order to publish more books.
In the first term of the exploration, we are focus generally in the healthcare system in Cambodia. In this exploration we’ve been to many of the health-related organizations and public and private hospital to gather their perspectives on the current Cambodian’s healthcare system. In this first round we try to gather as much as possible of the general informations about the healthcare system in Cambodia. The outcome of that is that we will chose our individual route that we are interesting in after hearing the perspectives from those doctors. So for the next round I want to focus more into science within health sector. Where I want to learn and research more about the medicine, the scientific one and the traditional one, moreover I want to know where do we get the ingredients to make medicine. Beside that I want to work with health-related organization volunteering to educate other people about health.
Specifically, on the 28th of September, the Healthcare Exploration went to an open-house at the University of Health Sciences (UHS). We registered in three different departments: Public Health, Dentistry, and Pharmacy. Specifically, in dentistry, we’d been toured to different labs, and meet their 7th-year students who were practicing dental care.
In the Public Health department, we were given an overview of what is public health, since it is a new major offered in 2013. Then, we heard the story of success from their first graduate and a student who is reaching the end of her bachelor study and were led into the information room. There, booths were set for participants to interact, ask questions to the students who study there, and read the research paper done by the professor and founder of the degree. Then, lastly, open house ended with them giving a tour of their library and study spaces.
University of Pharmacy is part of the UHS, and the pharmaceutical course has the most hand-on learning experience than any other medical department. There are three different types of classes, theoretical, laboratorical learning that practices theories learned, and researching. There are labs such as: DNA extraction from pathogens, plants identification, substance extraction, household-use products production such as hand soaps and soap bars. Some places require us to wear lab coats due to the risk of biohazard and contracting diseases. However, the most interesting part of this opening event is, learning that the university values the Khmer traditional medicine; instead of brushing it off due to its lack of scientific proof, one of the main lessons is focusing on understanding the science behind the traditional treatment, and uses the discovery to improve the modern medicines.
Fun Fact: Unlike the other universities in Cambodia, this university administer their tests digitally; where each student would have to answer a set 60 randomized questions within an hour.
Calculating Flying Insect Biodiversity Using Simpson’s Diversity Index
- Ecosystem Structure (biological populations and communities, ecological niches, species diversity)
C. Ecosystem Diversity (biodiversity, natural selection, ecosystem services)
Biodiversity is a hot topic. In the wild, habitats are shrinking and species are becoming extinct—lost forever—some without humans even discovering them. Biodiversity is also an issue closer to home. Planting large fields of a single genotype crop (e.g., corn or wheat) can make food sources vulnerable if that genotype becomes susceptible to a new pest or drought. An entire crop can be lost. In contrast, wild populations are more genetically diverse, so some individuals usually survive adverse conditions.
When studying the biodiversity of a community, a simple survey of the number of different species (species richness) in an area seemingly would give a clear picture of the diversity. As the following example illustrates, a calculation of the species richness alone doesn’t give that clear picture. It’s not until the distribution of those species (also called species evenness) is added to the calculation that the biodiversity of a community is more accurately portrayed.
- Calculate diversity values for sampled habitats, using 2 indices—species richness and Simpson’s Index
- Understand the differences between various ways of measuring and defining biodiversity
Sticky trap preparation and installation 30 min
Insect trapping At least 1 hr (can leave traps in place overnight)
Insect collection 30 min
Analysis of data 30 min
- 100 Sticky Traps
- 4 Hole Punches
- 4 Permanent Markers
- 100 Paper Clips
- 4 Rolls of String
- 8 to 16 Hand Lenses
Use caution when collecting living samples since they can include harmful organisms.
- Prepare 4 sets of material that each include 25 sticky traps, a hole punch, a permanent marker, 25 paper clips, and a roll of string.
- Examine your campus and identify areas that seem appropriate for collecting flying insects, e.g., along a chain link fence, off a tree branch, or between 2 fixed objects (where it’s possible to tie string tightly to each object). Compile a list of areas suitable for collection. Ultimately, allow groups to pick their locations from the list.
- Divide your class into 4 groups and assign each group a letter.
Note: This activity is best done when there isn’t a lot of air moving. Wind can dislodge sticky traps.
- Punch a hole in the top of each sticky trap.
- Using a permanent marker, label each trap with your group letter and number traps from 1 to 25.
- Go outside.
- As a group, decide which designated flying insect habitat to study. Consider how you will use the paper clips and string to ensure that all 25 sticky traps are in a single habitat. Secure the traps to branches, fences, or between 2 immovable objects (using tightly tied string). Best results occur 3 to 5 ft off the ground. Note: Be sure the traps are in a single habitat and are set at the same general height and in the same general conditions. Setting traps in multiple conditions will skew the results.
- After setting each trap, remove the wax paper from the sticky trap.
- Return to the classroom.
Note: Wait at least 1 hour or, if necessary, until the next class period.
- Go outside, collect the sticky traps, and return to class.
- Place your group’s sticky traps in numerical order and use a hand lens to examine the specimens.
- As a class, decide on consistent morphotype name designations (e.g., black spotted, red dotted, small black, big brown, or large round) for samples. Then enter the chosen names for morphotypes into the table (see Figure 1 for an example). This allows for combining data accurately later in the activity.
- Divide the 4 groups of students into pairs. Then divide the sticky traps evenly among the pairs of students. One of the student pair identifies the insects and, using the agreed-upon names for morphotypes, the other student counts and records the number of each morphotype in the Sample Data Table (see Figure 2).
- After all of the data from each student pair is entered into the data table, calculate the species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index for each habitat.
Figure 1 Example Data Table of Morphotypes (using class-designated names)
|Morphotype #||Morphotype Description||number||number/total||(number/total)^2|
|2||winged black ants||6||0.03428571429||0.001175510204|
|5||big blue wasp||0||0||0|
|7||green iridescent fly||5||0.02857142857||0.0008163265306|
|9||small fly (fruit flies, tiny black flies)||94||0.5371428571||0.288522449|
|11||wingless ants (tree ants, red ants)||0||0||0|
|Simpson = 1 –||0.6641632653|
Figure 2 Sample Data Table
|Habitat Types||Simpson (Species Richness)
Total: 16 species
|Simpson’s Diversity Index|
|Zone A : Behind Senior Housing||11||0.2790007048|
|Zone B : King Seven Pond||10||0.6347107438|
|Zone C : Mango Trees||11||0.5580145239|
|Zone D : Garden||12||0.6641632653|
- Compare the species richness and diversities of the 4 different habitats studied. Which habitat was more diverse in terms of richness and evenness? What evidence do you have?
- According to the Species Richness graph Zone D has the most diverse in terms of species richness and evenness because of all the habitat Zone D has the most number of species (12 species). Moreover, according to the Diversity Index Zone D has the most.
- How does the diversity of each habitat compare using the Simpson’s Diversity Index as opposed to just species richness? Which is more accurate?
- The diversity of each habitat compare using the Simpson’s Diversity Index as opposed to just species richness is that the Simpson’s Diversity Index is more distance from each other where is the species richness is more clump together. I think Simpson’s Diversity Index is more accurate because Simpson’s Diversity Index is a measure of diversity which takes into account both richness and evenness.
- Describe your group’s habitat in terms of its biotic and abiotic conditions. How did these conditions influence the species richness and diversity of insects in that habitat? Do the types of insect found “fit” that habitat? Why or why not
- My team we are measuring the biodiversity of flying insect in the garden area. There are many abiotic conditions such as soil, water, dead wood, and composed; moreover, there are also many biotic conditions such as grasses, trees, and small plants. I think the condition that influence most about the species richness and diversity of insects in that habitat is the composed where we can see in my team there are many fruit-flies were trapped. I think those type of insects in that habitat is fitted because the fruit-flies especially attracted to the composed.
- How does your habitat compare to other habitats around campus? What factors could have led to differences in diversity between the habitats?
- I think my habitat is similar to the other habitats around the campus, but one factors that could have led to differences in diversity between the habitats is that the composed and small bushes where it attracted a lot of different kinds of insect especially different types of flies and mosquitoes.
- Was your community of insects primarily composed of primary consumers, secondary consumers, or a combination of both? What inferences can you make about the rest of the community in this habitat?
- My community of insects primarily composed of primary consumers, and some mix of both; most of the primary consumers were organism that eat fruit and leaves, such as fruit-flies and horse-flies, as well ants. Moreover, the insect such as mosquitos and spider there are secondary consumers where they prey upon other small insects. I think there also a lot of decomposer as well, because the habitat is wet as well as human influence where we, Liger’s students, making composed there.
- Was your data accurate? Why or why not? Could this methodology have been improved upon? What other factors could have been measured to account for species diversity?
- I think my data isn’t accurate due to many influences one of which is rain. Before the experiment, I think that we will got a lot of horse-flies because of the composed but then it turns out that there are less of horse-flies. I think the methodology should be change where we try to choose different places in Liger or outside where the habitats is much different from each other moreover try to have less influences on the habitat that causes the result to be bias. I think the other factors could have been measured to account for species diversity are the area of the habitat and the influences in the habitats.
- Why is it important to take into account both species richness AND evenness when assessing community diversity?
- It is important to take into account both species richness and evenness when assessing community diversity because the species richness is contributed to increase in biodiversity also which is an important aspect biodiversity; moreover the species evenness measure the ratio between each organisms where is if we have species evenness this show that the community diversity is healthy.
- Why do you think biologists assess species diversity of a community? What does it tell you about the health of the ecosystem?
- I think the biologists assess species diversity of a community because they want to know about the species richness as well as the species evenness of an ecosystem. As there more and more species richness and those species are even up on each other the ecosystem is healthy.
- I think the biologists assess species diversity of a community because they want to know about the species richness as well as the species evenness of an ecosystem. As there more and more species richness and those species are even up on each other the ecosystem is healthy.
- Which of the following habitats is more diverse: A habitat including 10 species, each represented by 2 individuals? Or a habitat including 10 species, 1 of which is represented by 85 individuals and the remaining 9 species represented by 1 individual each? Explain your answer.
- The habitat that include 10 species, each represented by 2 individuals is more diverse. Because diversity is measure how rich the species in a habitat and evenness of species in the habitat. Both habitats has the same number of species but the first habitat the number of species is even but the second habitat is unbalance between the species evenness so it makes the first habitat is more diverse than the second one.
In the first term of the new school year of 2018-2019 specifically in math essential, we focus on SAT preparation. On the other hand, during our first two weeks after coming back from summer break we been training through the SAT Bootcamp with two mentors Amanda, an ESL teacher from an all-girls school in New Jersey; Kim, a recent Princeton grad in Computer Science. In that class, the mentors shared with us their experiences and tips to efficiently solve and analysis the text using different textual evidence or how to solve the math question effectively.
For math, we’ve been practiced multiple exams on papers and took the simulated exams in Khan Academy. In addition, in the math essential, we used a lot of Khan Academy tutorials to learn and practice those questions that might occur in the real SAT exam.
After the bootcamp as well as the practice in class during the math essentials I feel a bit more confident in doing those questions, on October the 6th.
As a change agent for Cambodia, I always dream to see my country become a model for others. So this is why I am here. At a vast potential school, the Liger Leadership Academy, where each of us the “change agent” will do our best to accomplish our mission and create opportunities for other in order to develop this country with determination and optimism.
Change Agent. Responsible. Respectful.
These three words encompass my soul. These are the words that characterize me today. The absence of those words would make me a different person. I believe that responsibility and respect are necessary to be a change agent for this lively country, Cambodia.
In my first five years at Liger, I have done countless projects as a change-agent to give-back to my communities: installing biodigesters, writing Animal Guide of Cambodia book, implementing STEM program to government schools, investigating dinosaurs in Cambodia, presenting about HIV/AIDS to other people and endless more. Although that seems to be a lot of projects, I acknowledge that it is just not enough; the trade isn’t equalizing yet.
Every time I went to my hometown during the holiday, I observed every moment of my family but also my neighbors’ without exception. I recognized that whenever there is a party or a family dinner, the ladies would operate the house-chore: cooking and cleaning. On the other hand, the men would sit in a circle, enjoy every sip of the beer, and firmly consume the delicious appetites.
Not only my own family, in the contemporary day, many Cambodians still fall into the pitfall trap of inequality rules that the elders had established. One of them in which, the poem called “Chbab Srey” where it outlined the rules that women in the 19th century require to follow: walk softly, speak quietly, obey your father and husband, laugh without showing the teeth, and much more. At the same time, when a girl gets a head start on her puberty, she is required to go under the shade; which a phrase in Khmer called “ចូលម្លប់”. This is the time that she will instruct how to be a wife: cook, clean, and stay under shade.
This is the real problem.
In the third round of exploration, I was introduced to a new topic called Gender Equity Exploration. We had seven weeks to learn and to target the project objectives. Each day of the seven weeks, our facilitators–Samantha and Cara–introduce different aspects in the gender-relative-inequality issues, especially the new language. Although most of the times my teammates and I get uncomfortable with some topics, we were still respectfully discussed the problem with intellectual solutions. Besides, the twelve of us believe that the causes of inequality emerge from the society, and we all are a part of the society; we all need to solve the enormous threat because we are all contributed to it.
As Dalai Lama once said, “If you want to change the world, first try to improve and bring about change within yourself.” On the 27th and 28th of January, our twelve members of the exploration hosted an event called “Gender Summit” for about 100 high school students from international schools, government schools as well as some local organizations. Our goal was to encourage dialogues regarding gender issues. Our team alerted that gender is not a common topic that Cambodian discuss in their daily conversation.
The event encompassed four main sessions: culture, language, economics, and power. The latter is my responsibility; we talked about how power influences the inequality. In this session, we introduced an activity called “Power Walk”. This activity let them apprehend the reasons behind inequality while introducing and let them put themselves in some others’ shoes. We gave them a variety of characters that reflected in Cambodia society: doctors, teachers, homeless children, LGBTQ+, and the minority people. As we read the statements that we all have, we want them to think does the statement match with their character, if yes they need to step forward a step and if not just stay where they are. When no more statement is being read, we allowed them to shoot the given paper ball to a bin. We can clearly see that the people that are at the front with more power have more chances to shoot the ball into the bin than people that are at the back. Although some people at the back manage to score we explain that the people in front are easier to reach the goal where people at the back need to work extra hard to reach their goal.
Gender is not a small topic; thus, the topic of power is really sensitive.
Yet, there are more to come. As described in a term “change agent” we didn’t stop there. Both, the students and facilitators are really fascinated by the topic.
In English literacy class, our teacher reinforces the topic every day through different articles and activities. We read many articles and try to connect it with the gender-related topic where we can discuss further deep from different aspect from each student. One of the articles is about the Bacha Posh, the “UNDERGROUND GIRLS’ SKIRT TRADITION TO LIVE AS BOYS,” where the Afghanistan young girls dress-up as boys until they reach their puberty; the girls did not know how to be girls since they always been treated as boys.
Moreover, we’ve been participating in the One Billion Rising event: a global movement and the day of action and dancing, in the protest to end rape and sexual violence against women with the theme of breaking the silence.
This is just a start.
As a change agent, I believe that gender issue is forever to be solved, we need all the people energy and ideas to be conscious of the topic itself. So by doing this step by step, we will help reduce the gender gap with the respect for the elders’ belief. As one of the Khmer wisdom confidently stated “តក់ៗពេញបំពុង” which mean if we do something little by little, through patience and efforts, we will accomplish our goal whether there are many obstacles out there waiting to tackle us.